Hepatocellular carcinoma makes up 80% of all cases of liver cancer. Liver cancer incidence rates are about three times higher in men than in women. Approximately 40% of hepatocellular carcinoma is diagnosed at an early stage and may be amenable to surgery (resection or liver transplantation) and/or locoregional procedures (radiofrequency ablation or embolization). With early diagnoses, the five-year survival rate is 29%, but decreases to 10% for regional and 3% for distant stages of the disease. Overall, the five year survival rate for liver cancer remains low at approximately 16% and has not improved significantly over the past four decades.