Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2020
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 2 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
(a) Basis of presentation
The condensed consolidated financial statements of Adaptimmune Therapeutics plc and its subsidiaries and other financial information included in this Quarterly Report are unaudited and have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and are presented in U.S. dollars. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions between the Company and its subsidiaries have been eliminated on consolidation.
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements presented in this Quarterly Report should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 27, 2020 (the “Annual Report”). The balance sheet as of December 31, 2019 was derived from audited consolidated financial statements included in the Company’s Annual Report but does not include all disclosures required by U.S. GAAP. The Company’s significant accounting policies are described in Note 2 to those consolidated financial statements.
Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted from these interim financial statements. However, these interim financial statements include all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, which are, in the opinion of management, necessary to fairly state the results of the interim period. The interim results are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for the full year.
(b) Use of estimates in interim financial statements
The preparation of interim financial statements, in conformity with U.S. GAAP and SEC regulations, requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the interim financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Estimates and assumptions are primarily made in relation to the valuation of share options, valuation allowances relating to deferred tax assets, revenue recognition, estimation of the incremental borrowing rate for operating leases, estimating clinical trial expenses and estimating R&D tax and expenditure credits. If actual results differ from the Company’s estimates, or to the extent these estimates are adjusted in future periods, the Company’s results of operations could either benefit from, or be adversely affected by, any such change in estimate.
(c) Fair value measurements
The Company is required to disclose information on all assets and liabilities reported at fair value that enables an assessment of the inputs used in determining the reported fair values. The fair value hierarchy prioritizes valuation inputs based on the observable nature of those inputs. The hierarchy defines three levels of valuation inputs:
Level 1 - Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
Level 2 - Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly
Level 3 - Unobservable inputs that reflect the Company's own assumptions about the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability
The carrying amounts of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate fair value because of the short-term nature of these instruments. The fair value of marketable securities, which are measured at fair value on a recurring basis is detailed in Note 6, Fair value measurements.
(d) New accounting pronouncements
Adopted in the period
Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract
On January 1, 2020, the Company adopted ASU 2018-15 – Intangibles — Goodwill and Other — Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40) Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract. The guidance aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal use software license). The Company elected to apply the guidance prospectively to all implementation costs incurred after the date of adoption. The guidance has not had a material effect on the condensed consolidated financial statements.
Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes
On January 1, 2020, the Company adopted ASU 2019-12 – Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (Topic 740). The simplifications to accounting for income taxes cover a variety of areas, including the removal of the exception to the incremental approach for intraperiod tax allocation when there is a loss from continuing operations and income or a gain from other items (for example, discontinued operations or other comprehensive income). The changes also add a requirement for an entity to reflect the effect of an enacted change in tax laws or rates in the annual effective tax rate computation in the interim period that includes the enactment date. Most of the amendments should be applied on a prospective basis. The guidance has not had a material effect on the condensed consolidated financial statements.
Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement
On January 1, 2020, the Company adopted ASU 2018-13 – Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820) - Disclosure Framework— Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, which modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements in Topic 820, Fair Value Measurement. Certain amendments apply prospectively with all other amendments applied retrospectively to all periods presented upon their effective date. The guidance has not had a material effect on the condensed consolidated financial statements.
Revenue Recognition in Collaborative Arrangements
On January 1, 2020, the Company adopted ASU 2018-18 – Collaborative Arrangements — Clarifying the Interaction between Topic 808 and Topic 606, which clarifies that certain transactions between collaborative arrangement participants should be accounted for as revenue under Topic 606 when the collaborative arrangement participant is a customer in the context of a unit of account. In those situations, all the guidance in Topic 606 should be applied, including recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure requirements. The guidance has been applied retrospectively to all contracts that were not completed at the date of initial application of Topic 606. The guidance has not had a material effect on the condensed consolidated financial statements because it did not change the Company’s accounting for existing or previous collaborative arrangements.
To be adopted in future periods
Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13 - Financial Instruments - Credit losses, which replaces the incurred loss impairment methodology for financial instruments in current GAAP with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. The guidance is effective for the fiscal year beginning January 1, 2020, including interim periods within that fiscal year. In November 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-10 which resulted in the postponement of the effective date of the new guidance for eligible smaller reporting companies to the fiscal year beginning January 1, 2023. The Company currently intends to adopt the guidance in the fiscal year beginning January 1, 2023. The guidance must be adopted using a modified-retrospective approach and a prospective transition approach is required for debt securities for which an other-than-temporary impairment had been recognized before the effective date. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the guidance on its condensed consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef