|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2016
Note 3 — Revenue
GSK Collaboration and License Agreement
Revenue represents recognized income from the GSK Collaboration and License Agreement. The GSK Collaboration and License Agreement contains the following significant deliverables, which are separate accounting units: (i) the development of, and option to obtain an exclusive license to, the Company’s NY-ESO SPEAR T-cells, and (ii) the development of, and option to obtain an exclusive license to a second target, PRAME. In addition, GSK also has the right to nominate three additional target peptides, excluding those where the Company has already initiated development of a SPEAR T-cell candidate, which is not considered to be a deliverable at the inception of the arrangement because it represents a substantive option not priced at a significant and incremental discount. The Company received an upfront payment of $42.1 million (£25 million) in June 2014 and has achieved non-substantive development milestones of $17.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2016, $14.4 million in the six months ended December 31, 2015 and $7.2 million in the year ended June 30, 2015. The Company is entitled to further non-substantive milestone payments based on the achievement of specified development milestones by the Company. When, and if, GSK exercises its option to obtain an exclusive license to a target, an option exercise fee will be payable and the Company will be entitled to further development and commercialization milestone payments based on achievement of specified milestones by GSK. The non-contingent arrangement consideration was allocated between the separate deliverables using the Company’s best estimate of the relative selling price. In determining the best estimate, the Company considered internal pricing objectives it used in negotiating the GSK Collaboration and License Agreement together with internal data regarding the cost of providing services for each deliverable.
In addition to the development milestones, the Company is entitled to royalties from GSK on all GSK sales of TCR therapeutic products licensed under the agreement, varying between a mid-single-digit percentage and a low-double-digit percentage of net sales. No royalties have been received as of December 31, 2016. Sales milestones also apply once any TCR therapeutic covered by the GSK Collaboration and License Agreement is on the market.
The GSK Collaboration and License Agreement is effective until all payment obligations expire. The agreement can also be terminated on a collaboration program-by-collaboration program basis by GSK for lack of feasibility or inability to meet certain agreed requirements. Both parties have rights to terminate the agreement for material breach upon 60 days’ written notice or immediately upon insolvency of the other party. GSK has additional rights to terminate either the agreement or any specific license or collaboration program on provision of 60 days’ notice to us. The Company also has rights to terminate any license where GSK ceases development or withdraws any licensed TCR therapeutic in specified circumstances.
In February 2016, the terms of the GSK Collaboration and License Agreement were expanded to accelerate the development of the Company’s NY-ESO SPEAR T-cells towards pivotal trials in synovial sarcoma, as well as the exploration of development of NY-ESO SPEAR T-cells in myxoid round-cell liposarcoma. The amendment also provides the opportunity for up to eight combination studies using NY-ESO SPEAR T-cells and increases the potential development milestones that the Company is eligible to receive. These development milestones will be allocated to the separate standalone deliverables within the arrangement once the milestone is achieved.
The revenue recognized to date relates to the upfront fee and non-substantive development milestones payments received, which are being recognized using the proportional performance model in revenue systematically over the period in which the Company is delivering services under the GSK Collaboration and License Agreement, which is determined to be the period until GSK’s option to obtain licenses expires. We regularly review and monitor the performance of the GSK Collaboration and License Agreement to determine the period over which we will be delivering services to GSK. The Company recognized revenue of $14,198,000, $8,979,000, $9,871,000 and $825,000 in the year ended December 31, 2016, the six months ended December 31, 2015 and years ended June 30, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
The Company regularly reviews, and when a change in facts or circumstances occurs, adjusts the estimate of the period over which the Company will deliver services under the GSK Collaboration and License Agreement. In prior periods this has not resulted in a significant impact on revenue recognized. However, in June and December 2016, the estimate of the period over which the Company will deliver services under the GSK Collaboration and License Agreement was increased due to a change in facts and circumstances. These changes in estimate resulted in a decrease in revenue of $5,615,000 in the year ended December 31, 2016 compared to the revenue that would have been recognized based on previous estimates. The changes in estimate will also result in a decrease in revenue amortization of $2,237,000 in the year ended December 31, 2017 and an increase in revenue amortization of $939,000, $900,000 and $6,053,000 in the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively, compared to the revenue that would have been recognized based on previous estimates.